Sunday, December 8, 2019

Need To Update The Chicago Convention AT

Question: Write a article why need to update the Chicago Convention? Answer: The Chicago Convention was formulated in the year 1944 and since the time it was established it has hardly undergone any changes. The Convention is said to outlive its usefulness and it has been more than 60 years that the Convention has seen changes. However, over the last sixty years the world has changed in many fields technical, economic, geopolitical and social. Many new states have come up that did not exist in the year 1944 (Bradley, 2014). The technology that made the aviation industry work has also leaped ahead and frequent changes are noticeable in the field of aviation industry since the year 1944. The world had progressed towards formation of a globalised economy in which the nationality border would have decreasing importance. New issues and challenges have come into existence that was foreseeable sixty years ago but now needs to be addressed urgently and seriously (Bradley, 2014). Likewise, criminal acts have increased and there is a need to protect the safety of civil aviation. In the recent years, there is a growing concern for environmental protection, growing need for air traffic management and technical assistance to make sure that globally the civil aviation industry is safe. Hence, with these mounting issues in the Chicago Convention we may conclude that there is a need to make necessary amendments in the Convention so that it meets the requirements of globalization and the growing demands in the field of civil aviation. According to me, the Chicago Convention should be modernized and necessary changes should be implemented (Button Neiva, 2014). References: Bradley, M. M. (2014). Drones and the Chicago convention: an examination of the concepts of aerial sovereignty, the war on terror and the notion of self-defence in relation to the Chicago convention. Button, K., Neiva, R. (2014). Economic efficiency of European air traffic control systems.Journal of Transport Economics and Policy (JTEP),48(1).

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Teaching Practice free essay sample

You know, that there is no secret that the students who are doing their fourth year are fresh from their first fulltime teaching practice and I am not an exception. A week ago I came back from my school practice and I am full of emotions and positive fillings. I was allocated to a comprehensive school in Donetsk. And I did my fulltime practice as a teacher of English and foreign literature. I spent my first week observing lessons in different classes and giving occasional lessons myself. Sometimes I had to substitute some teachers because of their illness. At these moments I understood that teaching is not my calling, but I must do it. I think that people, who find teaching as a calling must be absolutely stark raving mad. I should admit that speaking about my responsibilities during school practice, I had my hands full doing all sorts of tutorial and instructional work. We will write a custom essay sample on Teaching Practice or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page And some more responsibilities for the class rested squarely on my shoulders. Apart from conducting lessons I had a thousand one other time consuming duties as out-of-school activities with my class as a master teacher. As for the school staff, I can say that mainly there were not too young but consequently, enthusiastic, energetic and willing to share experience teachers. I was doing my practice under the superviser’s control, who is a fully-flagged teacher and she always helped me in case I had some problems†¦ And now I want to spent some time writing some words about children. You know, every school has disobedient pupils as well as diligent and assiduous. And the fact is that children will be children everywhere. Honestly, I had some discipline problems with boisterous children who always wanted to talk back to me and tried to play some jokes and tricks on me. Unfortunately, I didn’t have enough knowledge about how to keep them well in hand, but I tried no to bark out orders, but participate in personality reinforcing interaction with them. I always tried to establish a warm supportive and nonthreatening climate in the class. I knew, that it would help me to get a feedback from those, who were diligent pupils, who were quick in the up-takes, could catch words on the fly†¦I tried to imbue them with love of English and to support their interest unflagged , keep them busy and involve them into work. So, analyzing my first fulltime practice, I can say that I need some more skills in teaching, because I am too lenient and mind-bind teacher, that’s why I had the discipline problems†¦ To sum up I ant to write the next words: â€Å" A good teacher should be a bit of an actor. This is part of the technique of teaching†. And these words are absolutely true, because I have checked them in practice†¦ And, no matter whether you are standoffish or a mind-bind teacher, no capacity will be more important for you than a disinterested love of children and of your subject area.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Effects on Marine Pollution Professor Ramos Blog

Effects on Marine Pollution Trash from the shore lines eventually make it into the ocean if no one picks them up. Marine pollution has been considered a serious problem since the late 1900s when fish populations started to reduce due to the pollution. Trash in the ocean is not only affecting fish; it has also posed a risk to coral reefs which are actually living animals who are already 19% extinct. Humans are the only mammals who are capable of acknowledging they are doing wrong, through instinct but can choose to do right tomorrow. Therefore, even though humans are responsible for endangering animals, we are now encouraging engineers and cleanup crews to help the environment. Ocean technologies have been a work in process for a specific purpose: to clean pollution and decrease the risk of wildlife endangerment. These technologies need to be implemented and utilized to reduce marine pollution. Through the past decade, computerized devices like cell phones and laptops have been getting smaller, more powerful and more portable. But technology for the ocean is still a work in progress. Boyan Slat is the founder and CEO of The Ocean Cleanup foundation. This foundations goal is to clean up the worlds oceans by ridding them of plastics and other waste. They plan on doing this by creating floating barriers on a coastline to gather the plastic, and take it out. The barrier consists of a 600 meter long floater and a three meter deep skirt attached underneath. The floater supplies buoyancy to the barrier and avoids plastic from floating over it while the skirt prevents smaller particles from escaping underneath and allowing fish to still pass under it. The floating barrier uses the wind and waves from the ocean to propel itself, gathering plastic and other de as it goes. The system moves quicker than the trash that way the plastic is captured. The skirt extends deeper in the middle of the system than on the outer edges allowing it to turn the barrier into a u-shape when the current applies force. From there the trash is gathered like a funnel at the center of the barrier.   The barrier and the plastic are both free floating along the ocean therefore the barrier is more likely to travel in the direction of high amounts of trash, gathering the pollution along its way. This system has solar power lights, anti collision systems, cameras, sensors and satellite antennas, for the engineers and scientists to be allowed to communicate with the system in any part of the ocean. It also gathers performance data. Periodically, a support ship comes by to take out the gathered plastic like a garbage truck of the ocean. The plastic is transported after to land and is recycled; it is also turned into glass bracelets, necklaces, etc. Once the barrier is released into the ocean in 29 days from now (August 10, 2018), this system   is expected to clean up 50% of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch every 5 years. Technology is one of the many devices people are trying to use in order to clean up the ocean.Aside from technology, there have been over 17 different states in the U.S. who have participated in a Zero Waste Week campaign. This campaign encourages students to reduce their amounts of plastic usage and littering. They are encouraged to go out as classrooms and pick up trash that might one day find its way into the ocean; afterwards, the students dispose of the trash properly. During this campaign the schools adopt a new slogan â€Å"go green, think blue† and embraced the five R’s: refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle, and rot. Teachers and student reduced bottled waters and tried replacing them with reusable containers. The students even made a competition out of the campaign and battled against other classes to see who could bring in the most reusable equipment and the winners would get reusable gifts. As appreciated as these schools and foundations are, the only way humans as a whole can make a drastic difference for the aquatic mammals is if we all made changes to our daily uses for plastic. Yes, plastic does have a valuable temporary use for humans. But once the plastic is no longer worthy to someone then they will get thrown out. Plastic takes hundreds of years to decompose. But plastic is actually more dangerous for the ocean when they become very small pieces known as micro-plastics; fish confuse it with food and it kills them slowly. There are plenty of substitutions to plastic: toothbrushes are now made with plant based bamboo products, there is biodegradable floss, grocery plastic bags can be replaced with paper or fabric material, and straws can now be substituted with either metal or glass. Plastic straws end up in the ocean primarily through human mistakes and some intentional mistakes. They are left on beaches in coastal communities, littered, or blown out of trash cans because of how small and light straws are. Once the straws enter the ocean, their main victims are seabirds are turtles. People have been gathering cleanup crews along the side of the ocean making it their mission to not leave any trash behind, 4 ocean is an organization that gathers groups of people all over the world to clean the oc eans. They also have boats and throw fishing nets into the ocean to gather pollution instead of fish. Every pound of trash that gets pulled out of the ocean is turned into glass bracelets with a logo that says â€Å"1 pound†. Cleaning up the ocean with technologies such as floating barriers were impossible ideas over five years ago. Now it is a work in progress that might save endangered species of fish. California is the only state that is passing bills to aim the reduction of plastic straws and bottles decreasing the amounts of litter; other states in the U.S. are trying to do the same. Countries all over the world such as European countries, like Denmark, France, Belgium, Italy and Portugal, have already been trying to â€Å"kick the plastic addiction† by recycling and using biodegradable or reusable products to save the ocean. Work Cited Laist, David. â€Å"Overview of the biological effects of lost and discarded plastic debris in the marine environment.† Marine pollution Bulletin, Vol. 18, no. 6, June 1987, Page: 319-326. Science Direct, -This article was written in 1987, therefore polluting the ocean was already a serious topic 31 years ago. Laist covers the amounts of plastics and other synthetic materials that were being polluted into the ocean. Plastic was becoming more available to the people and we were getting creative in using it many different ways. But did we actually consider how quick it would degrade, where the wastes would go, and who it would affect in the long run? Plastic wastes are now possessing danger to â€Å"marine mammals, seabirds, turtles, fish, and crustaceans† because they confuse plastic with foods and it damages their organs or causes them to feel ill and starve to death. Animals constantly get caught in fishing nets and drown or when they come in contact with anything that does not belong in the ocean, they can cut themselves or swim directly into objects causing injuries. McCoy, Terrence. Can the Largest Cleanup in History Save the Ocean? Washington Post Blogs, 01 Feb, 2016, SIRS Issues Researcher, -Boyan Slat is the founder of the Ocean Cleanup organization. He proposed building a large and angled barrier and anchoring it to the ocean floor in the areas of densest garbage pile. Then â€Å"the oceans currents would take it from there, passively pushing the plastic into a collection zone†. It was predicted that this cleanup would take thousands of years but Slat presented a more complex idea to a project’s office with his creation that would only take five years. It took him plenty of attempts to model and put to use his creations and he failed many times, this helped him understand how inventions work. By 2020 Boot and his team were going to be ready to launch this experiment into a successful attempt but in June 2017, there was an updated report his creation will be launching this year in 2018. Nally, Alyssa. Students Take a Stand Against Marine Plastic Pollution by Adopting.. NOAA News, 01 Jul, 2018, SIRS Government Reporter, -Students from a   union school in California have began a campaign called â€Å"Zero Waste Week† in which they promote reusable water containers instead of using plastic bottles and anything that can substitute styrofoam or any kind of plastic. Classrooms were encouraged to compete against other classrooms and see who could bring in their own reusable bottles or other objects and the class winners would receive reusable gifts. They came up with a slogan: â€Å"go green, think blue†, and they encouraged more schools to embrace their campaign. On friday’s, the students would go out and collect as much trash as they possibly could and dispose of it properly to make sure none of it would end up in the ocean. Their efforts are making a difference and they definitely reached out to Watsonville School of Arts in California. Watsonville students are turning trash into art by creating reusable cloth napkins during Zero Waste Week. Paulson, Amanda. Rethinking Disposable Strawsfor the Sake of the Oceans. Christian Science Monitor, 07 Jun, 2018, SIRS Issues Researcher, -Even though our generation is becoming aware of the danger plastics are causing the ocean, it is going to take more effort from every individual to actually make a difference. There are an estimated eight million tons of trash in the ocean each year which is equivalent to one truck loaded with trash being dumped into the ocean each minute. Yes, plastic does have a valuable meaning on land because we so often use it but we also get rid of it fast. California is the only state in the United States to try and eliminate plastic. We rid ourselves from most plastic bags and California was just introduced to a   Bill that would ban plastic straws. There are substitutions from the plastic material such as bamboo, metal, or glass straws. Schreuer, Milan. E.U. Proposes Plastics Ban to Cut Down Sea Pollution. New York Times, 29 May, 2018, pp. A. 6. SIRS Issues Researcher, -the ten plastic items most commonly found on beaches include straws, cotton swabs, disposable cutlery, and fishing gear. European countries have already taken steps to reduce more plastic use and many of the population show a major interest in helping the ocean. European countries are waiting for the approval by the unions 28 member states to reduce the top ten plastics.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Definition and Examples of Double Entendres

Definition and Examples of Double Entendres A double entendre is a  figure of speech in which a word or phrase can be understood in two ways, especially when one meaning is risquà ©. Also called innuendo. One of the most famous double entendres in American advertising is the slogan created by Shirley  Polykoff to promote Clairol hair coloring: Does she or doesnt she? The phrase double entendre  (from the French, now obsolete, for double meaning) is sometimes hyphenated and sometimes italicized. Examples and Observations Rebecca Kordecki . . . created little booties and a slide kit to use while performing moves that strengthen and lengthen the body. The name Booty Slide is a double entendre, she explains: We wear the booties on our feet, but the workout also lifts your booty.(Carlene Thomas-Bailey, American Fitness Crazes Hit the UK. The Guardian, Dec. 28, 2010)While many mento songs are about traditional folksong subjects, from political commentary to simple day-to-day life, a disproportionately large number of the songs are bawdy songs, often featuring poorly-veiled (and delightfully funny) sexual double-entendres. Popular mento songs include references to Big Bamboo, Juicy Tomatoes, Sweet Watermelon, and so on.(Megan Romer, Jamaican Mento Music 101, World Music)Mrs. Slocombe: Before we go any further, Mr. Rumbold, Miss Brahms and I would like to complain about the state of our drawers. Theyre a positive disgrace.Mr. Rumbold: Your what, Mrs. Slocombe?Mrs. Slocombe: Our drawers. Theyre sti cking. And its always the same in damp weather.Mr. Rumbold: Really.Mrs. Slocombe: Miss Brahms could hardly shift hers at all just now.Mr. Lucas: No wonder she was late.Mrs. Slocombe: They sent a man who put beeswax on them, but that made them worse.Mr. Rumbold: Im not surprised.Miss Brahms: I think they need sandpapering.(Mollie Sugden, Nicholas Smith, Trevor Bannister, and Wendy Richard in Are You Being Served?) She touched his organ, and from that bright epoch, even it, the old companion of his happiest hours, incapable as he had thought of elevation, began a new and deified existence.(Charles Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit, 1844)Nurse: God ye good morrow, gentlemen.Mercutio: God ye good den, fair gentlewoman.Nurse: Is it good den?Mercutio: ’Tis no less, I tell you; for the bawdy hand of the dial is now upon the prick of noon.Nurse: Out upon you! what a man are you!(William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Act II, scene three)Its impossible to ignore the prominence of water as a primary motif in black spiritual culture- from the debilitated Gospel pleas to be washed white as snow to the rebellion-coded double entendre wade in the water, which referenced both baptism and escape routes from slavery.(William J. Cobb, To the Break of Dawn: A Freestyle on the Hip Hop Aesthetic.  NYU Press, 2006)Womens Use of the Double Entendre in 18th-Century EnglandOf all the improvements in polite conversa tion, I know of nothing that is half so entertaining and significant as the double entendre. It is a figure in rhetoric, which owes its birth, as well as its name, to our inventive neighbours the French; and is that happy art, by which persons of fashion may communicate the loosest ideas under the most innocent expressions. The ladies have adopted it for the best reason in the world: they have long since discovered, that the present fashionable display of their persons is by no means a sufficient hint to the men that they mean any thing more than to attract their admiration: the double entendre displays the mind in an equal degree, and tells us from what motives the lure of beauty is thrown out. . . .The double entendre is at present so much the taste of all genteel companies, that there is no possibility either of being polite or entertaining without it. That it is easily learnt is the happy advantage of it; for as it requires little more than a mind well stored with the most natur al ideas, every young lady of fifteen may be thoroughly instructed in the rudiments of it from her book of novels, or her waiting maid. But to be as knowing as her mamma in all the refinements of the art, she must keep the very best company, and frequently receive lessons in private from a male instructor.(Edward Moore, The Double Entendre. The World, No. 201, Thursday, Nov. 4, 1756) Pronunciation: DUB-el an-TAN-dra

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Space Tourism Intro Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Space Tourism Intro - Essay Example Over-all Introduction of the Topic This paper entitled Risk Management Analysis: Space Tourism is about the identification of risks involved–and its ways to resolve and reduce them–in getting Space Tourism in full swing. It emphasizes the risk identification; so that the concerned people can consequently apply them to reduce imminent risks in space tourism, to save lives. This paper–albeit its delicate stand towards space tourism–stresses the positive aspect of space tourism as an opportunity to bring Science and luxury travel to new heights. It looks at space tourism not a profiteering racket by industry giants but as an evolving idea of space travel capable of giving a completely safe travel option for the next destination in the outer space. This paper has emphasized the aspects, which are to be scrutinized, in the area of space travel. Generally, these aspects are: history of space travel, suborbital flights, past accidents and, ultimately, the risk id entification. The group behind this paper considers the topic as worthy of doing a detailed risk analysis since it is futuristic. And, it is simply bearing in mind the safety of people and of the entire space industry to prevent their loss of lives and their investment, respectively. Lastly, we hope that this paper entitled Risk Management Analysis: Space Tourism can be a good reference–and a scientific journal at that–for concerned people. Unless we can’t stress to NASA–and other space administrations worldwide–not to take for granted the safety issues of human spaceflights, the space industry can’t assure the riding public of a superior and safe travel experience. History of Space Tourism When the Soviet Union successfully launched the Sputnik artificial satellite fifty-four years ago on October 4, 1957 (, the humanity was ushered in a new era of space science which dates back from the past. Later, on April of 1961, the newspaper The Huntsville Times of Alabama reported the feat of a Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin in the banner â€Å"Man Enters Space† ( Gagarin is said to be successful in his April 12 orbital flight in the Vostok 1 spacecraft. Alan Shepard followed suit when he â€Å"became the first American in space less than a month† ( These, and few others, were monumental turning points in history which started to encourage people to raise the bar in luxury travel. Recently, space travel is becoming exclusive to astronauts – or cosmonauts – and multi-millionaires who can shell out millions of US dollars for a ticket, as well. But, the more progressive breakthrough in space tourism is the relatively cheaper means to travel in the space. Private launch services and satellite builders are there to cater to people who wish to visit the  International Space Station. ( For those who cannot afford, there is cheaper alternative. There is even an intera ctive video game for simulated space tourism. For those who wish to have a taste inside the International Space Station, Vision Videogames LLC made an agreement with NASA to create the video game SpaceStationSim ( so that people can encounter lifelike missions inside the space station. But it has to provide actual experiences. To date, federal funds have also supported infrastructure development–

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Analysis of Red Hat Linux Operating System Research Paper

Analysis of Red Hat Linux Operating System - Research Paper Example Among other innovations, such as the Anaconda graphical installer and the firewall configuration tool Lokkit, Red Hat is an established name in the open source operating system market space. This may be due, in part, to its appealing graphical interface for users and the accessibility of its programmer interface, which is intelligently presented. By reviewing this interface, as well as some advantages and disadvantages of the operating system, why exactly Red Hat is a respected name in Linux circles may become clearer. Red Hat is ostensibly based on the design principles of simplicity, robustness, and security (Cunningham & Cunningham, 2007). Simplicity refers to simple abstractions and simple components, which leads to faster and more efficient use of hardware resources. Red Hat exemplifies this characteristic by focusing on a simple desktop for users to customize. Robustness refers to the ability of a system to resist failure after the addition of a new feature or component. When a system is multiprogramming, it is ideal if the system does not fail because it cannot adequately distribute resources to handle the increased load. Red Hat, because it has been developed and re-released over nine versions, is incredibly robust in handling large memory loads. Lastly, Red Hat is based on a secure design, which means Red Hat has extended Linux’s reputation as a secure environment, primarily by buffering overflows integrated in the standard software stack, smartcard authentication support, and SELinux security. The Red Hat Linux desktop consists of GNOME and KDE, which offer a wide range of features. The KDE desktop for Red Hat (in Figure 1), features a main menu icon at the lower left, which is a red hat. The desktop includes a number of files and folders, depending on what software is installed on the user’s computer. KDE is very similar to the standard Microsoft Windows format for the central desktop, particularly in how the standard option places the taskbar at the bottom of the screen, with a main menu button at the lower left, and desktop icons arranged vertically along the left side of the desktop. KDE uses a file management and web browser called Konqueror, which is a standard setting in Red Hat installations. Lastly, the KDE Control Center window allows for additional customization of the operating system for the user. In contrast, the GNOME desktop for Red Hat Linux (in Figure 2) is slightly different from KDE (McCarty, 2004). The principal dissimilarity is GNOME’s use of Nautilus, which like Konqueror, is the default file manager and browser. Another notable difference is GNOME’s use of a drawer, which is a clickable icon that leads to links to other launchers. GNOME also features a â€Å"Start Here† facility that allows for other kinds of configurations, including changes to peripheral devices, default applications, themes, GNOME’s appearance, and so on. A Red Hat Linux user is given a choice between the KDE and GNOME desktop interfaces. Beyond the basics of Red Hat’s desktop and user interface, however, one finds a rich array of tools for a programmer to manipulate and control his or her machine. The Unix shell in Red Hat, like an MS-DOS window, allows the user to execute commands. Again, beyond the desktop and point-and-click interface, the Linux shell is actually more sophisticated. The major elements of the programmer interface

Sunday, November 17, 2019

New Paradigms in the Study of the Civil War Essay Example for Free

New Paradigms in the Study of the Civil War Essay A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic, or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly united nation state. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region, or to change government policies. Civil wars since the end of World War II have lasted on average just over four years, a dramatic rise from the one-and-a-half year average of the 1900-1944 period. While the rate of emergence of new civil wars has been relatively steady since the mid-19th century, the increasing length of those wars resulted in increasing numbers of wars ongoing at any one time. For example, there were no more than five civil wars underway simultaneously in the first half of the 20th century, while over 20 concurrent civil wars were occurring at the end of the Cold War, before a significant decrease as conflicts strongly associated with the superpower rivalry came to an end. Since 1945, civil wars have resulted in the deaths of over 25 million people, as well as the forced displacement of millions more. Civil wars have further resulted in economic collapse; Somalia, Burma, Uganda and Angola are examples of nations that were considered to have promising futures before being engulfed in civil wars. Formal classification James Fearon, a scholar of civil wars at Stanford University, defines a civil war as a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies. The Correlates of War, a dataset widely used by scholars of conflict, classifies civil wars as having over 1000 war-related casualties per year of conflict. This rate is a small fraction of the millions killed in the Second Sudanese Civil War and Cambodian Civil War, for example, but excludes several highly publicized conflicts, such as The Troubles of Northern Ireland and the struggle of the African National Congress in Apartheid-era South Africa. That the Party in revolt against the de jure Government possesses an organized military force, an authority responsible for its acts, acting within a determinate territory and having the means of respecting and ensuring respect for the Convention. That the legal Government is obliged to have recourse to the regular military forces against insurgents organized as military and in possession of a part of the national territory. That the de jure Government has recognized the insurgents as belligerents; or That it has claimed for itself the rights of a belligerent; or That it has accorded the insurgents recognition as belligerents for the purposes only of the present Convention; or That the dispute has been admitted to the agenda of the Security Council or the General Assembly of the United Nations as being a threat to international peace, a breach of the peace, or an act of aggression. That the insurgents have an organization purporting to have the characteristics of a State. That the insurgent civil authority exercises de facto authority over the population within a determinate portion of the national territory. That the armed forces act under the direction of an organized authority and are prepared to observe the ordinary laws of war. That the insurgent civil authority agrees to be bound by the provisions of the Convention. Causes of civil war in the Collier-Hoeffler Model Scholars investigating the cause of civil war are attracted by two opposing theories, greed versus grievance. Roughly stated: are conflicts caused by who people are, whether that be defined in terms of ethnicity, religion or other social affiliation, or do conflicts begin because it is in the economic best interests of individuals and groups to start them? Scholarly analysis supports the conclusion that economic and structural factors are more important than those of identity in predicting occurrences of civil war. A comprehensive studies of civil war was carried out by a team from the World Bank in the early 21st century. The study framework, which came to be called the Collier-Hoeffler Model, examined 78 five-year increments when civil war occurred from 1960 to 1999, as well as 1,167 five-year increments of no civil war for comparison, and subjected the data set to regression analysis to see the effect of various factors. The factors that were shown to have a statistically significant effect on the chance that a civil war would occur in any given five-year period were: Availability of finance A high proportion of primary commodities in national exports significantly increases the risk of a conflict. A country at peak danger, with commodities comprising 32% of gross domestic product, has a 22% risk of falling into civil war in a given five-year period, while a country with no primary commodity exports has a 1% risk. When disaggregated, only petroleum and non-petroleum groupings showed different results: a country with relatively low levels of dependence on petroleum exports is at slightly less risk, while a high-level of dependence on oil as an export results in slightly more risk of a civil war than national dependence on another primary commodity. The authors of the study interpreted this as being the result of the ease by which primary commodities may be extorted or captured compared to other forms of wealth, for example, it is easy to capture and control the output of a gold mine or oil field compared to a sector of garment manufacturing or hospitality services. A second source of finance is national diasporas, which can fund rebellions and insurgencies from abroad. The study found that statistically switching the size of a countrys diaspora from the smallest found in the study to the largest resulted in a sixfold increase in the chance of a civil war. Low per capita income has been proposed as a cause for grievance, prompting armed rebellion. However, for this to be true, one would expect economic inequality to also be a significant factor in rebellions, which it is not. The study therefore concluded that the economic model of opportunity cost better explained the findings. Population size The various factors contributing to the risk of civil war rise increase with population size. The risk of a civil war rises approximately proportionately with the size of a countrys population. Gleditsch et al. did not find a relationship between ethnic groups with polygyny and increased frequency of civil wars but nations having legal polygamy may have more civil wars. They argued that misogyny is a better explanation than polygyny. They found that increased womens rights were are associated with less civil wars and that legal polygamy had no effect after women’s rights were controlled for. Duration of civil wars Ann Hironaka, author of Neverending Wars, divides the modern history of civil wars into the pre-19th century, 19th century to early 20th century, and late 20th century. In 19th-century Europe, the length of civil wars fell significantly, largely due to the nature of the conflicts as battles for the power center of the state, the strength of centralized governments, and the normally quick and decisive intervention by other states to support the government. Following World War II the duration of civil wars grew past the norm of the pre-19th century, largely due to weakness of the many postcolonial states and the intervention by major powers on both sides of conflict. The most obvious commonality to civil wars are that they occur in fragile states. Civil wars in the 19th and early 20th centuries Civil wars through the 19th century to early 20th century tended to be short; the average length of a civil war between 1900 and 1944 was one and half years. The state itself was the obvious center of authority in the majority of cases, and the civil wars were thus fought for control of the state. This meant that whoever had control of the capital and the military could normally crush resistance. If a rebellion failed to quickly seize the capital and control of the military for itself, it was normally doomed to a quick destruction. For example, the fighting associated with the 1871 Paris Commune occurred almost entirely in Paris, and ended quickly once the military sided with the government. The power of non-state actors resulted in a lower value placed on sovereignty in the 18th and 19th centuries, which further reduced the number of civil wars. For example, the pirates of the Barbary Coast were recognized as de facto states because of their military power. The Barbary pirates thus had no need to rebel against the Ottoman Empire, who were their nominal state government, to gain recognition for their sovereignty. Conversely, states such as Virginia and Massachusetts in the United States of America did not have sovereign status, but had significant political and economic independence coupled with weak federal control, reducing the incentive to secede. The two major global ideologies, monarchism and democracy, led to several civil wars. However, a bi-polar world, divided between the two ideologies, did not develop, largely due the dominance of monarchists through most of the period. The monarchists would thus normally intervene in other countries to stop democratic movements taking control and forming democratic governments, which were seen by monarchists as being both dangerous and unpredictable. The Great Powers, defined in the 1815 Congress of Vienna as the United Kingdom, Habsburg Austria, Prussia, France, and Russia, would frequently coordinate interventions in other nations civil wars, nearly always on the side of the incumbent government. Given the military strength of the Great Powers, these interventions were nearly always decisive and quickly ended the civil wars. There were several exceptions from the general rule of quick civil wars during this period. The American Civil War was unusual for at least two reasons: it was fought around regional identities, rather than political ideologies, and it was ended through a war of attrition, rather than over a decisive battle over control of the capital, as was the norm. The Spanish Civil War was exceptional because both sides of the war received support from intervening great powers: Germany, Italy, and Portugal supported opposition leader Francisco Franco, while France and the Soviet Union supported the government . Civil wars since 1945 In the 1990s, about twenty civil wars were occurring concurrently during an average year, a rate about ten times the historical average since the 19th century. However, the rate of new civil wars had not increased appreciably; the drastic rise in the number of ongoing wars after World War II was a result of the tripling of the average duration of civil wars to over four years. This increase was a result of the increased number of states, the fragility of states formed after 1945, the decline in interstate war, and the Cold War rivalry. Following World War II, the major European powers divested themselves of their colonies at an increasing rate: the number of ex-colonial states jumped from about 30 to almost 120 after the war. The rate of state formation leveled off in the 1980s, at which point few colonies remained. More states also meant more states in which to have long civil wars. Hironaka statistically measures the impact of the increased number of ex-colonial states as increasing the post-WWII incidence of civil wars by +165% over the pre-1945 number. While the new ex-colonial states appeared to follow the blueprint of the idealized state centralized government, territory enclosed by defined borders, and citizenry with defined rights -, as well as accessories such as a national flag, an anthem, a seat at the United Nations and an official economic policy, they were in actuality far weaker than the Western states they were modeled after. In Western states, the structure of governments closely matched states actual capabilities, which had been arduously developed over centuries. The development of strong administrative structures, in particular those related to extraction of taxes, is closely associated with the intense warfare between predatory European states in the 17th and 18th centuries, or in Charles Tillys famous formulation: War made the state and the state made war. For example, the formation of the modern states of Germany and Italy in the 19th century is closely associated with the wars of expansion and consolidation led by Prussia and Sardinia, respectively. Such states are considered weak or fragile. The strong-weak categorization is not the same as Western-non-Western, as some Latin American states like Argentina and Brazil and Middle Eastern states like Egypt and Israel are considered to have strong administrative structures and economic infrastructure. Historically, the international community would have targeted weak states for territorial absorption or colonial domination or, alternatively, such states would fragment into pieces small enough to be effectively administered and secured by a local power. However, international norms towards sovereignty changed in the wake of WWII in ways that support and maintain the existence of weak states. Weak states are given de jure sovereignty equal to that of other states, even when they do not have de facto sovereignty or control of their own territory, including the privileges of international diplomatic recognition and an equal vote in the United Nations. Further, the international community offers development aid to weak states, which helps maintain the facade of a functioning modern state by giving the appearance that the state is capable of fulfilling its implied responsibilities of control and order. The formation of a strong international law regime and norms against territorial aggression is strongly associated with the dramatic drop in the number of interstate wars, though it has also been attributed to the effect of the Cold War or to the changing nature of economic development. Consequently, military aggression that results in territorial annexation became increasingly likely to prompt international condemnation, diplomatic censure, a reduction in international aid or the introduction of economic sanction, or, as in the case of 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, international military intervention to reverse the territorial aggression. Similarly, the international community has largely refused to recognize secessionist regions, while keeping some secessionist self-declared states such as Taiwan in diplomatic recognition limbo. While there is not a large body of academic work examining the relationship, Hironakas statistical study found a correlation that suggests that every major international anti-secessionist declaration increased the number of ongoing civil wars by +10%, or a total +114% from 1945 to 1997. The diplomatic and legal protection given by the international community, as well as economic support to weak governments and discouragement of secession, thus had the unintended effect of encouraging civil wars. There has been an enormous amount of international intervention in civil wars since 1945 that served to extend wars. While intervention has been practiced since the international system has existed, its nature changed substantially. It became common for both the state and opposition group to receive foreign support, allowing wars to continue well past the point when domestic resources had been exhausted. Superpowers, such as the European great powers, had always felt no compunction in intervening in civil wars that affected their interests, while distant regional powers such as the United States could declare the interventionist Monroe Doctrine of 1821 for events in its Central American backyard. However, the large population of weak states after 1945 allowed intervention by former colonial powers, regional powers and neighboring states who themselves often had scarce resources. On average, a civil war with interstate intervention was 300% longer than those without. When disaggregated, a civil war with intervention on only one side is 156% longer, while intervention on both sides lengthens the average civil war by an addition 92%. If one of the intervening states was a superpower, a civil war is extended a further 72%; a conflict such as the Angolan Civil War, in which there is two-sided foreign intervention, including by a superpower, would be 538% longer on average than a civil war without any international intervention. Effect of the Cold War The Cold War provided a global network of material and ideological support that perpetuated civil wars, which were mainly fought in weak ex-colonial states, rather than the relatively strong states that were aligned with the Warsaw Pact and North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In some cases, superpowers would superimpose Cold War ideology onto local conflicts, while in others local actors using Cold War ideology would attract the attention of a superpower to obtain support. Using a separate statistical evaluation than used above for interventions, civil wars that included pro- or anti-communist forces lasted 141% longer than the average non-Cold War conflict, while a Cold War civil war that attracted superpower intervention resulted in wars typically lasting over three times as long as other civil wars. Conversely, the end of the Cold War marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 resulted in a reduction in the duration of Cold War civil wars of 92% or, phrased another way, a roughly ten-fold increase in the rate of resolution of Cold War civil wars. Lengthy Cold War-associated civil conflicts that ground to a halt include the wars of Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua . See also The Logic of Violence in Civil War War of Independence Wars of national liberation References